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Where there is water, there is life—and Europa’s got water alright: scientists believe it has twice the volume of Earth’s oceans swirling beneath its kilometers-thick ice crust. A moon in Jupiter’s massive orbit, Europa has captivated astrophysicists, including Neil deGrasse Tyson, because it has completely blown open the borders in the search for life in our universe. Europa is well outside of the life-supporting “Goldilocks Zone”. Tyson explains how liquid water can exist in such a frozen part of our solar system, and how engineers might approach getting through all that ice to potentially come face to face/membrane with life, whether simple or complex. It won’t be too long before NASA’s ‘Europa Clipper’ mission makes its move to investigate the habitability of the icy moon: it will head for Europa in the 2020s. Tyson’s new book is
Astrophysics for People in a Hurry.

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NEIL DEGRASSE TYSON

Neil deGrasse Tyson was born and raised in New York City where he was educated in the public schools clear through his graduation from the Bronx High School of Science. Tyson went on to earn his BA in Physics from Harvard and his PhD in Astrophysics from Columbia.  He is the first occupant of the Frederick P. Rose Directorship of the Hayden Planetarium. His professional research interests are broad, but include star formation, exploding stars, dwarf galaxies, and the structure of our Milky Way. Tyson obtains his data from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as from telescopes in California, New Mexico, Arizona, and in the Andes Mountains of Chile.Tyson is the recipient of nine honorary doctorates and the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. His contributions to the public appreciation of the cosmos have been recognized by the International Astronomical Union in their official naming of asteroid “13123 Tyson”.

Tyson’s new book is Astrophysics for People in a Hurry (2017).

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TRANSCRIPT:

Neil deGrasse Tyson: Nobody doesn’t love Europa. Let me back up.

When we think of places you might find life we typically think of the Goldilocks zone around a star where water would be liquid in its natural state, and if you get a little too close to the star heat would evaporate the water and you don’t have it anymore, it’s gone. Too far away, it would freeze and neither of those states of H2O are useful to life as we know it. We need liquid water. So you can establish this green zone, this habitable zone, this Goldilocks zone where if you find a planet orbiting there: hey, good chance it could have liquid water. Let’s look there first for life as we know it.

Now, it turns out that this source of heat, of course, is traceable to the sun, and if you go farther out everything would or should be frozen, all other things being equal. But Europa, a moon of Jupiter sitting well outside of the Goldilocks zone, is kept warm. Not from energy sources traceable to the sun, but from what we call the tidal forces of Jupiter itself.

So Jupiter and surrounding moons are actually pumping energy into Europa. And how does it do that? As Europa orbits Jupiter its shape changes. It’s not fundamentally different from tides rising and falling on Earth. The shape of the water system of the earth is responding to tidal forces of the moon and when you do that to a solid object, the solid object is stressing and because of this, a consequence of this is that you are pumping energy into the object.

It is no different from when you say—anyone who’s familiar with racquet sports, indoor racquet sports, it could be racquetball or squash—you say, “Let’s warm up the ball before we start playing.” You want to hit it around a few times. You are literally warming up the ball. It’s not just simply, “Let’s get loose,” it’s, you are literally warming up the ball. How? You are distorting it every time you smack it and then the resilience of the ball pops it back into shape, and every time you do that, every smack, you’re pumping energy into the ball. That’s not fundamentally different from what’s going on in orbit around Jupiter.

So you have this frozen world Europa, completely frozen on its surface, but you look at the surface and there are cracks in the ice. There are ridges in the ice where there’s a crack and it’s shifted and then re-froze. So this ridge has a discontinuity in the crack and it continues in another place. So what this tells you is that Europa cannot be com…

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45 Comments

Penis

March 24, 2020

Neil looks like a very kinky man.

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Thomas Richardson

March 24, 2020

Those dark ridges on the ice contain carbon-based molecules, essential for life!

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Nick Linn

March 24, 2020

It’s to bad he died in that creepy sex accident

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Johnny NiteTrain

March 24, 2020

97 people that disliked are probably whacky christians

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Association of Free People

March 24, 2020

Insufferable pop-science guy

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Dylan Newell

March 24, 2020

Love this guy

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Optimiste Obstinata Orbiculate

March 24, 2020

Io: Fire / Europa:Water / Ganymede:Air / Callisto:Earth

Shared resonance – 28:14:7:3

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ramzeen.m

March 24, 2020

probes should have been sent to Europa a long time ago to investigate the possibility of life!

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Trushal Gaikwad

March 24, 2020

Moons are tidally locked to their planets, so no rotation like earth, even if life is found there humans probably won't survive since there won't be a stable atmosphere

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Shqipe Autochthonous

March 24, 2020

imagine theres a primitive civilization under the ice of europa.

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Cin Firefly

March 24, 2020

WHERE WERE YOU NEIL IN THE 80’s….. because all my earth and sciences biology teachers did was show movie 🍿. That had nothing to do with anything relevant to the subject. We never used the big telescopes 🔭 , the classes were a waste… I wanted so much more ..

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Nibbles

March 24, 2020

Neil is the only scientist I can understand without having to look up every single word another scientist says 😂

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Hugh MacDonald

March 24, 2020

Skip. This guy hasn't published anything worthwhile. He's just an educated narcissist. And he's rude to children. https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/neil-degrasse-tyson-girl-on-jupiter/

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GamerXwing

March 24, 2020

change your youtube channel to: Big brain time"

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Ivan Übermensch

March 24, 2020

Not a genius.

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Prog47

March 24, 2020

PLEASEEEEEEE I NEED EUROPA TO HAVE LIFE. I WANT TO BE ALIVE DURING THE BIGGEST SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY IN THE HISTORY OF HUMANITY

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Fat Farting Dog

March 24, 2020

Life?…what if it's just a hot empty ocean? Boring shit….

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Edmund Michel

March 24, 2020

very well explained, it's simple and it makes sense!

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consciousnick -

March 24, 2020

God must have flooded Europa. That'll teach em

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s.kjm14 MX

March 24, 2020

titan nasa

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S.E. Sander

March 24, 2020

I want a bottle of water made from Europa's water content. How much do you think that would be worth on Earth? 😆

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mister roberts

March 24, 2020

you also have Saturns moon Enceladus that has water on it

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Ben Novick

March 24, 2020

I pray that in Neil's lifetime he gets to see alien contact and can assist with developing modes of communication and understanding.

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Snagglefratz

March 24, 2020

Good stuff.

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Leader success !

March 24, 2020

Neil Degrassi Tyson is a very smart and funny guy we need more scientists like him ☺

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Dick De graaf

March 24, 2020

why do they go to mars while europa would.be much better to explore

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Admin Sultanic

March 24, 2020

Glumac teški jedan od naj većih lažova na svojoj okrugloj zemlji

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Alexandros Mograine

March 24, 2020

just like how metal gets warm when you bend it

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Ronnie 6767

March 24, 2020

i have an idea. take one of the few thousand nuclear warheads in our arsenal and put it on a rocket, send that rocket a few hours before a 2nd rocket with a submarine on it. and blow a massive hole in the ice. merica.

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Peter Titus

March 24, 2020

The laws of physics changes once you leave earth….

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Didactic

March 24, 2020

We should move all the Ice Moons to the Goldilocks Zone, melt and clean the water then add engineered plankton and algae.

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ITX Official

March 24, 2020

I was wondering… did someone ever dared to show Neil the Netflix movie "IO"?? If not, I really hope he never ever gets to see it. It might actually cause physical harm to him!!

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Chicken Gamer YouTube

March 24, 2020

I live on Earth like you do because Jupiter is gassy Venus is bright Mercury’s hot Neptune’s cold Earth is just right so we call Earth the goldy locks planet

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Milos Terzic

March 24, 2020

Tyson 🖕

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Josh Landers

March 24, 2020

Why would you need to tunnel through the ice if the vents are shooting water vapor into the sky wouldn’t that mean that thats an opening to the sea underneath and a drone could just go in from there?

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777BENEDICT YARAHMDI

March 24, 2020

ths message to y team MR TYSON WE BEN CALL SOON AS POSBLE RAISE Y TEAM BY MU INFO TO EUROPA BEF TH HIDIND WAT TH HAVE INSD EUROPA POSBLTY TH TAKE ALL TH ARMY TEAM BY TAKIN TH WEPN WHICH TH USE FR EUROPA AND TAKIN OFF SOON TECN CAN NOT SEE THS MOVE HOW TH TALE FR EUROPA TRANSOR TO NEXT PLAND WHICH NAME IS UNKOWING
IN THS CASE ID THS HAPPEN Y LOSE FUTURE Y DISTUNY IN SPACE
IAM SPEAKIN 100000000000000000000000000000000000000 303 x CERTLLION 00000000 WE LOSE in SPACE MONEY

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Matthew Benoit

March 24, 2020

2020 is to long from now!! Just go now!!! Lol ! I want to know wtf is on this Moon 🌝

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Unknown Opinionioid

March 24, 2020

What if they are frog people there or something?

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Augustus Caesar

March 24, 2020

if life IS under the ice surface of Europa, what kind of life do you think it'd be? because it probably doesn't need light (i think).

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Kenneth Harris

March 24, 2020

He said fishes

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PRINCE INDRAJIT LAW.

March 24, 2020

👍

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Jan Hendrixs

March 24, 2020

Yes there is life on Europa.. I live there

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DJ Cruel

March 24, 2020

#TerraformEuropa

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T White

March 24, 2020

Can we please fund this voyage so we can find extraterrestrial life and finally eradicate most religions? Can't wait to do the "I told you so" dance in front of the skeptics!

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christian crompton

March 24, 2020

Pseudo science

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